Kami: A revered deity or spirit. Can be a historical Japanese figure like Sugawara no Michizane.
Kamidana: Shinto home altar.
Kamisama: Respectful word for "kami".
Ofuda: Wooden tablet, usually wrapped in paper, that is enshrined at a kamidana.
Omamori: Charms giving a blessing bestowed by a shrine. Usually their purpose is specified.
Shinsen: Offerings to kamisama.